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Optimize 3kPZS application rate to yield large and consistent catches of sea lamprey in barrier-integrated traps
2U.S. Geological Survey, Great Lakes Science Center, Hammond Bay Biological Station, 11188 Ray Road, Millersburg, MI 49759
3U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 3090 Wright Street, Marquette, MI 49855
4Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 1219 Queen Street East, Sault Ste. Marie, ON P6A 2E5
5Michigan State University, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Room 13 Natural Resources Building, East Lansing, MI 48824
6Great Lakes Fishery Commission, 2100 Commonwealth Blvd., Suite 100, Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Knowledge gaps limiting use of the first fish pheromone biopesticide, 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control include (1) how much 3kPZS should be applied to traps, (2) what is the expected increase in adult sea lamprey catch, and (3) how do (1) and (2) vary among streams. By conducting 3kPZS dose-response experiments over two years and across six diverse streams and trapping contexts, we conclude that 3kPZS application should be optimized by how much is applied to the trap, not the concentration of 3kPZS when fully mixed with discharge and that 3kPZS would be most effective in wide streams (>30m). In wide streams, the application of a high 3kPZS dose (50 mg/hour) to the trap increased capture rate by 10-20% because, in general, more sea lamprey entered the trap after encounter. However, in narrow streams (< 15 m), a high 3kPZS dose generally reduced probabilities of upstream movement, trap encounter, and entrance. Overall, upstream movement, encounter, and capture probabilities were weakly driven by 3kPZS application when compared to other factors such as water temperature, stream width, sea lamprey length, and sex. Therefore, biological and environmental factors, as well as trap placement and design, will be essential to consider when using 3kPZS-baited traps on wide streams.